Buzzards on board the
...with Homeland Security taking a back seat!
Sightings from The Catbird Seat
~ o ~
March 1, 2008
Airbus parent beats Boeing for
big U.S. Air Force contract
By Leslie Wayne, International Herald Tribune
WASHINGTON: The U.S. Air Force, in a stunning decision against Boeing,
awarded a $40 billion contract for aerial refueling tankers Friday to a
partnership between Northrop Grumman and the European parent of Airbus,
putting a critical military contract partly into the hands of a foreign
The contract, one of the largest at the Pentagon, has the potential to grow
to $100 billion. It is also a sign of the growing influence of foreign suppliers
within the Pentagon and breaks a decades-long relationship with Boeing,
which built the bulk of the existing tanker fleet and fought hard to land the
"This isn't an upset," said Loren Thompson, a military analyst at the
Lexington Institute, a Washington-area research group. "It's an
Under the contract, Northrop and the parent of Airbus, European
Aeronautic Defense & Space, or EADS, would build a fleet of 179 planes,
based on the existing Airbus 330, to provide in-air refueling to military
aircraft, from fighter jets to cargo planes. It gives a huge lift to EADS,
whose commercial aviation program has suffered a number of setbacks in
While final assembly of the craft would take place at an Airbus plant near
Mobile, Alabama, parts would come from suppliers across the globe.
At a news conference, air force officials said the creation of domestic jobs
was not a factor in the decision. In response to questions about possible
negative reaction to the deal in Congress, General Arthur Lichte, head of
the air force's air mobility command, said, "This will be an American tanker,
flown by American airmen with an American flag on its tail and, every day, it
will be saving American lives."
Reaction from some in Congress, however, was swift.
"We are outraged that this decision taps European Airbus and its foreign
workers to provide a tanker to our American military," the delegation
from Washington State said in a joint statement. Boeing planes are
assembled outside Seattle. "This is a blow to the American aerospace
industry, American workers and America's men and women in uniform."
For its part, Boeing, which had been considered the strong favorite to retain
the contract, said it was "very disappointed" in the outcome. But it did not
say whether it would file a formal protest - something General Michael
Moseley, chief of staff of the air force, has said he hopes the losing bidder
will not do because it would only further delay the tanker replacement
In its statement, Boeing said, "We believe that we offered the air force the
best value and lowest risk tanker for its mission." The company added that
only after a debriefing by the Pentagon would the company "make a decision
concerning our possible options, keeping in mind at all times the impact to the
warfighter and the nation."
A Boeing victory was considered so certain that many Wall Street analysts
had already factored the contract into their economic forecasts for the
company and led one senator, Kay Bailey Hutchison, Republican of Texas, to
prematurely send out a press release praising Boeing for its victory.
The air force decision is also a surprise ending to a protracted contracting
process that went on for nearly a decade and became mired in scandal and
international politics. Senator John McCain, the presumptive Republican
presidential candidate, had scuttled an earlier attempt by the air force
to award the contract to Boeing, opening the door for the Northrop-Airbus bid.
McCain's campaign spokeswoman referred calls to his Senate office, which
could not be reached for comment.
Norm Dicks, a Washington Democrat who is a member of the House
Appropriations Committee Defense Subcommittee, said he was attending an
anticipated victory party at Boeing's Washington headquarters when the
mood suddenly darkened.
"Here we are in the middle of a recession and we give this to Airbus?"
Dicks added. "That is not going to go down well."
Ronald Sugar, the chief executive of Northrop Grumman, said in a telephone
interview that he expected members of Congress would have a "variety of
views" depending on whether their districts would be gaining or losing jobs
under the deal.
He said that 60 percent of the content of the new tanker would come from
the United States and that the contract would create 2,000 jobs in Mobile
and 25,000 overall in the United States.
"This is more about the capability that we will give to the kids fighting the
wars and the cost to the taxpayer," he said.
Backing Sugar's view was Senator Richard Shelby, Republican of Alabama,
who hailed the decision as "great news for Alabama."
The Alabama and Mississippi delegations had lobbied hard in Congress to
polish the image of Airbus. In Paris, at the annual air shows, Airbus officials
and these politicians proudly displayed the proposed European tanker
offering and made the argument that if the United States wanted to sell
its weapons to European countries, it should also open its doors to
Replacing these tankers has been the air force's top priority since 1996,
when the government first proposed obtaining new planes. The first 179
tankers will be acquired at a pace of about 15 a year. But it is expected that,
over time, nearly 400 new refueling planes will be needed, which could bring
the program's total cost to $100 billion.
For more than a decade the air force's effort to modernize the fleet has
been thwarted by global politics, Washington scandals and an aggressive
attack by McCain, a member of the Senate Armed Services Committee.
In the end, a procurement scandal led to the departure of Philip Condit, the
chief executive of Boeing, the resignation of James Roche as air force
secretary and the imprisonment of two Boeing executives, one of whom had
worked on the program as a Pentagon acquisition official.
The air force, short on cash and wanting to acquire the planes as fast as
possible, proposed an arrangement to Congress in late 2001 under which the
Pentagon would lease the Boeing 767s in a sole-source contract that would
keep Boeing's aging 767 production line alive.
But just as the air force was about to sign that deal, it came under sharp
attack from McCain, a former navy pilot. He denounced the deal as a
sweetheart arrangement between Boeing and the air force that had been
arranged with insufficient scrutiny and oversight, and that would
shortchange the taxpayer.
Soon afterward, it was reported that the air force's No. 2 weapons buyer,
Darleen Druyun, had been promised jobs for herself, her daughter and
son-in-law in return for steering the tanker contract and billions of
dollars of other air force business to Boeing. Soon after joining the
company in a $250,000-a-year post, Druyun and Michael Sears, Boeing's
former chief financial officer, pleaded guilty and received prison terms.
The weight of the scandal caused the deal to collapse in 2004 and opened
the door to competition.
Each side spent millions to sharpen its proposal, hire lobbyists and former
generals to argue their case and wage extensive advertising efforts in
Washington and at military gatherings.
March 6, 2008
Move to restrict EADS’
The Financial Times, Limited
By Gerrit Wiesmann in Frankfurt and Peggy Hollinger in Paris
France and Germany are finalising changes to EADS’ corporate by-laws to
prevent foreign investors building significant stakes in – or even taking over –
Europe’s flagship aerospace and defence company.
The move comes at a sensitive time for the Franco-German group, which late
last week secured a breathtaking entry into the US defence market with a
$35bn contract for its Airbus tanker-aircraft.
Some US politicians have said giving the contract to a foreign company could
have dire security implications – a frenzy that could mount if EADS’ Russian
or Middle Eastern shareholders were to increase their holdings.
Dubai International Capital, a sovereign wealth fund, bought 3.1 per cent
last summer and VEB, a state-controlled Russian bank, took a 5 per cent
stake in December.
But the French government, French media group Lagardère, and German
carmaker Daimler, which together control 45 per cent of EADS, are
planning to restrict any investor deemed predatory from owning more
than 15 per cent.
That level – a working number that might change – is integral to two models
the Franco-German core shareholders are working on to see whether EADS
can be given additional protection against a foreign takeover.
This follows last summer’s agreement between Nicolas Sarkozy, the French
president, and Angela Merkel, the German chancellor, to consider issuing
“golden shares” to Paris and Berlin to take pressure off the core trio to
uphold their stakes.
New takeover defences could herald adjustments to the shareholders’ pact,
which enshrines German and French stakes at 22.5 per cent a piece.
Lagardère has been seen as a probable seller of its 7.5 per cent stake....
March 11, 2008
McCain advisers lobbied for
European plane maker
WASHINGTON (AP) -- Top current advisers to Sen. John McCain's
presidential campaign last year lobbied for a European plane maker that beat
Boeing to a $35 billion Air Force tanker contract, taking sides in a bidding
fight that McCain has tried to referee for more than five years.
Two of the advisers gave up their lobbying work when they joined McCain's
campaign. A third, former Texas Rep. Tom Loeffler, lobbied for the
European Aeronautic Defence and Space Co. while serving as McCain's
national finance chairman.
EADS is the parent company of Airbus, which teamed up with U.S.-based
Northrop Grumman Corp. to win the lucrative aerial refueling contract on
February 29. Boeing Co. Chairman and CEO Jim McNerney said in a
statement Monday that the Chicago-based aerospace company "found
serious flaws in the process that we believe warrant appeal."
McCain, the Republican presidential nominee in waiting, has been a key figure
in the Pentagon's years-long attempt to complete a deal on the tanker.
McCain helped block an earlier tanker contract with Boeing and prodded the
Pentagon in 2006 to develop bidding procedures that did not exclude Airbus.
EADS retained Ogilvy Government Relations and The Loeffler Group to
lobby for the tanker deal last year, months after McCain sent two letters
urging the Defense Department to make sure the bidding proposals
"They never lobbied him related to the issues, and the letters went out
before they were contracted" by EADS, McCain campaign spokeswoman Jill
Hazelbaker said Monday.
According to lobbying records filed with the Senate, Loeffler Group
lobbyists on the project included Loeffler and Susan Nelson, who left the
firm and is now the campaign's finance director. Ogilvy lobbyist John Green,
who was assigned the EADS work, recently took a leave of absence to
volunteer for McCain as the campaign's congressional liaison.
"The aesthetics are not good, especially since he is an advocate of reform
and transparency," said Richard Aboulafia, an analyst with the aerospace
consulting firm Teal Group. "Boeing advocates are going to use this as
McCain, a longtime critic of influence peddling and special interest politics,
has come under increased scrutiny as a presidential candidate, particularly
because he has surrounded himself with advisers who are veteran
Washington lobbyists. He has defended his inner circle and has emphatically
denied reports last month in The New York Times and The Washington
Post that suggested he helped the client of a lobbyist friend nine years ago.
He has also cast himself as a neutral watchdog in the Air Force tanker
contract, one of the largest in decades.
"All I asked for in this situation was a fair competition," he told reporters
Monday at Lambert Field in St. Louis, home of a Boeing fighter jet plant.
On Friday, he defended his aggressive oversight: "I never weighed in for or
against anybody that competed for the contract. All I asked for was a fair
process. And the facts are that I never showed any bias in any way against
anybody -- except for the taxpayer."
Last week, Air Force Secretary Michael Wynne told the Senate Armed
Services Committee that the EADS-Northrop Gruman plane was "clearly a
better performer" than the one proposed by Boeing.
It is unclear what EADS hired the lobbyists to do. Loeffler and Airbus
officials did not immediately respond to phone and e-mail messages left late
A Boeing spokesman declined to comment Monday on the links between
McCain and lobbying efforts on behalf of EADS.
But Boeing supporters already have begun to accuse McCain of damaging
Boeing's chances by inserting himself into the tanker deal.
One of them, Rep. Norm Dicks, D-Washington, said the field was "tilted to
Airbus" because the Pentagon did not weigh European subsidies for Airbus in
its deliberations -- a decision he blamed on McCain. Everett, Wash., is where
Boeing would perform much of the tanker work, and Dicks is a senior member
of the House Appropriations defense subcommittee.
In December 2006, just weeks before the Air Force was set to release its
formal request for proposals, McCain wrote a letter to the incoming defense
secretary, Robert Gates, warning that he was "troubled" by the Air Force's
draft request for bids.
The United States had filed a complaint with the World Trade Organization
alleging that Airbus unfairly benefits from European subsidies. Airbus in
turn argued that Boeing also receives government support, mostly as tax
Under the Air Force proposal, bidders would have been required to explain
how financial penalties or other sanctions stemming from the subsidy dispute
might affect their ability to execute the contract. The request was widely
viewed as hurting the EADS-Northrop Grumman bid.
The proposed bid request "may risk eliminating competition before bids are
submitted," McCain wrote in a December 1, 2006, letter to Gates. The Air
Force changed the criteria four days later.
Dicks said the removal of the subsidy language was a "game-changer" that
favored EADS over Boeing.
"The only reason that they could even bid a low price is because they
received a subsidy," Dicks said last week. "And Senator McCain jumped into
this and said that (the Air Force) could not look at the subsidy issue -- which
I think is a big mistake, especially when the U.S. trade representative is
bringing a case in the (World Trade Organization) on this very issue."
EADS' interest in the tanker deal is evident in the political contributions of
its employees. From 2004 to 2006, donations by its employees jumped
from $42,500 to $141,931, according to an analysis by the nonpartisan
Center for Responsive Politics. So far this election cycle, company
employees have donated $120,350. Of that, McCain's presidential campaign
has received $14,000, the most of any other member of Congress this
McCain prides himself in the role he played blocking an earlier version of the
tanker deal that gave the contract to Boeing. As chairman of the Senate
Commerce Committee and of an Armed Services subcommittee, McCain led
an investigation that eventually helped kill that contract in 2004. A former
Air Force official and a top Boeing executive both served time in prison, and
the scandal led to the departure of Boeing's chief executive and several top
Air Force officials.
"I intervened in a process that was clearly corrupt," McCain said Friday.
"That's why people went to jail."
While McCain has praised Boeing for fixing its practices, his campaign said
the experience prompted him to demand "a full, fair and open competition."
His letters -- one to Deputy Defense Secretary Gordon England in
September 2006 and the other to Gates -- were sent with that spirit in
mind, Hazelbaker said Monday.
Once the rules were in place, Hazelbaker said, bidders submitted proposals,
the Air Force reviewed them and the contract was awarded.
"That is a process that McCain, appropriately, had absolutely no role in," she
June 19, 2007
US Airways to buy 92 jets from Airbus
Christia Gibbons, The Arizona Republic
US Airways Group announced plans Monday to buy 92 Airbus aircraft to
update its fleet and prepare for additional overseas flights. The deal
provided a boost to Airbus, which outpaced its rival Boeing in terms of
orders on the first day of the International Paris Air Show.
Neither Airbus nor Tempe-based US Airways would reveal the price of the
agreement, although list prices of the craft would put the total order at $10
billion to $11 billion. It is likely, however, that US Airways paid less than
that amount because the order was so large.
US Airways President Scott Kirby said the decision to pick Airbus over
Boeing largely came down to delivery goals that fit better with the
company's phase-out, phase-in schedule.
The airline will phase in new aircraft as it retires the B767 fleet. The
updated planes will replace, not expand, the fleet, which accommodates about
US Airways said that 60 single-aisle Airbus A320 family aircraft are set to
be delivered from 2010 to 2013.
An additional 10 A330-200 aircraft will enter the fleet starting in 2009. The
remaining 22 Airbus A350 aircraft will be delivered in 2013.
Airline analyst Mike Boyd of the Boyd Group Inc. in Everett, Wash., called
the order a good strategy.
"This allows them to make a hell of a deal on the A350s because they can
afford to wait until they need them," he said.
Major international carriers should have the Boeing 787s when they come
online next year. By the time US Airways is ready for the A350s, Boyd said,
the planes could be among the most technologically advanced in the air.
And, although all fleets do not need the same aircraft, "it's important to
standardize within a fleet," he said, adding that inconsistencies happened as
a result of the merger of America West and US Airways in 2005.
Boeing's Dreamliner 787, rival to the A350s, is set to be in the air by May
US Airways officials considered this craft over the A350s, but were swayed
by delivery goals. The A350 has three versions.
One accommodates 250 to 270 passengers, a second 300 to 330 passengers
and the third more than 350 passengers. The airline hopes to win a route to
China and fly the A350s to that country by 2014.
Airbus and Chicago-based Boeing tout the fuel efficiency of their new jets
along with greater passenger comfort and convenience.
Airbus emphasizes better overhead storage bins, while Boeing promises
higher cabin humidity, both boasting better seat configuration and comfort.
Airbus was ahead on orders the first day of the world's largest air show
with $45 billion vs. Boeing's $4.4 billion.
However, the U.S. aircraft company had 584 orders for its Dreamliner
coming into the week-long show.
Currently, US Airways has 205 Airbus aircraft, 148 Boeing Co. airplanes and
May 25, 2006
BAE turning toward U.S. as it
cuts 27-year tie to Airbus
Sale to EADS of 20% stake could shake up both companies
By Nicola Clark
PARIS: When BAE Systems, the British military contractor, announced last
month that it was bowing out of its nearly 30-year relationship with Airbus,
the split was greeted in Britain with shock, followed by nods of recognition
of the kind that sometimes come when a long-married couple confide that
they have grown apart.
The British, after all, had been lukewarm about the European commercial
aircraft venture almost from the beginning. The country entered talks in the
mid-1960s on joining the French-German consortium, but backed out in 1969
when the supersonic Concorde - which received more than £1 billion, now
worth more than $1.9 billion, in British state aid - garnered only a handful of
orders. A full decade passed before BAE Systems, then a state-owned
company, joined Airbus, in 1979.
Its departure now could change not only BAE but also Airbus, where the
ownership - and decision-making - structures are evolving.
BAE has never really seen itself as a builder of passenger planes. When
Airbus was transformed into a corporation in 2000, BAE made clear that its
interest in the company was financial and not strategic: The terms included
an option for BAE to sell its 20 percent stake back to European Aeronautic
Defense & Space, which owns the other 80 percent.
"The fact that BAE is selling its stake should not come as a surprise," Gustav
Humbert, chief executive of Airbus, said last week. "This is a business
decision, not an industrial one."
January 5, 2006
Norway pulls investments in seven
multinationals over ethical concerns
Groups producing nuclear arms components
Norway has withdrawn investments of more than 500 million dollars (413.6
million euros) from seven multinational corporations, including Boeing and
Honeywell of the US, due to ethical concerns over the groups' production
of nuclear arms components, the government said on Thursday.
The five other companies are BAE Systems of Britain, Safran of France,
Finmeccanica of Italy, and US groups Northrop Grumman and United
The withdrawal follows a recommendation from Norway's Advisory Council on
Ethics, which is tasked with monitoring the ethics of companies in which
Norway places its massive state Pension Fund, formerly known as the Oil
Norway's finance minister asked the central bank, which manages the fund,
to sell the holdings, worth 3.3 billion kroner (416.2 million euros, 502 million
dollars). They were sold last year, Finance Minister Kristin Halvorsen told
reporters on Thursday. "This does not mean that there won't be other
companies (excluded)... Our work will continue," she stressed.
Norway, however, did not withdraw its stake in French oil group Total, in line
with the Advisory Council's recommendation. Total has been criticised by
several humanitarian aid groups for its controversial business dealings in
Myanmar, formerly Burma, which is run by a military junta....
The Advisory Council said it saw "no direct link today between the human
rights violations committed by the Myanmar regime and Total's activities in
this country." The Norwegian Burma Committee said it was "very
disappointed" by the decision. According to the most recent statistics
available, the Norwegian state holds 0.679 percent of Total.
Norway's state Pension Fund, into which the state deposits its massive oil
and gas revenues, is one of the richest funds in the world. At the end of
September 2005, it was worth 1,281.1 billion kroner (161.4 billion euros,
195.2 billion dollars). The sheer size of the fund enables Norway to exert
pressure on companies to ensure that their operations are ethical. Norway is
the world's third-largest oil exporter behind Saudi Arabia and Russia.
The Scandinavian country has already withdrawn its stakes in 10 other
companies, including Thales of France, European Aeronautic Defence and
Space Company, and US groups General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin and
Raytheon. They are accused of helping manufacture cluster bombs, devices
which are particularly lethal for civilian populations. ----
March 29, 2005
Pentagon Strips Air Force of
21 Major Weapons Programs
Las Vegas Review-Journal
WASHINGTON (AP) - In a highly unusual move, the Pentagon’s top weapons
buyer on Monday took away the Air Force’s authority to oversee 21 major
programs with a combine value of $200 billion.
The move, called temporary, was made because of a civilian leadership
vacuum at the Air Force after the departure last week of Peter Teets, who
was under secretary of the Air Force as well as acting secretary. Teets had
been fillin in since James Roche resigned as secretary in January.
It also comes amid continuing controversy over the Air Force’s handling of a
multibillion-dollar Boeing aircraft lease deal that fell through last year and
led to the conviction of former Air Force executive Darleen Druyun on
charges of conspiring to violate conflict-of-interest rules.
Druyun admitted in court that she favored Boeing on deals worth billion of
dollars because the company gave jobs to her daughter and son-in-law.
Her admission led to a detailed Pentagon review of her nearly 10-year tenure
as a key weapons buyer for the Air Force and prompted rival defense
companies to file protests over Boeing contracts awarded during that period.
The episode has taken a tool on the Air Force. Since Roche departed, the
White House has not nominated anyone to replace him as the Air Force
secretary, a post that requires Senate confirmation. Some believe the
current Navy secretary, Gordon England, will get the nomination.
In addition, no one has been nominated to replace Teets as the under
secretary. What’s more, the post of Air Force acquisition chief has been
vacant since Marvin Sambur left in January.
With Teets gone, the most senior civilian in the Air Force is Michael I.
Dominquez, who has served since August 2001 as assistant secretary of the
Air Force for manpower and reserve affairs....
In Monday’s announcement, the Pentagon said it was giving the decision-making authority for the 21 major Air Force weapons programs to Michael
Wynne, the No. 2 Pentagon civilian in charge of weapons procurement.
The No. 1 slot has not had a Senate-confirmed holder since May 2003.
Wynne was nominate for the top spot but his nomination – and others in the
Air Force – have been blocked by Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz, as part of a
long-running dispute over the Boeing lease deal....
The 21 programs include a $59.2 billion Boeing contract for C-17A
Globemaster II advanced cargo aircraft, and a $31.7 billion Boeing and
Lockheed Martin contract for the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle....
Among other programs affected are air-to-air missiles, B-2 bomber radar
modernization, C-5 cargo plane improvements, propulsion replacement for the
Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile and a $18 billion
communications satellite program....
November, December, 1995
ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR ECONOMIC SECURITY
~ ~ ~
Which Defense Firms Will Survive – Meet the
Man Who Helps the Pentagon Decide
A large white banner is first thing you notice upon entering the reception
area of Joshua Gotbaum’s third-floor Pentagon office. In foot-high red
letters, it reads: “Please Mr. Gotbaum, Save Natick [Mass.] Labs”
(referring to the Base Realignment and Closure [BRAC] recommendation to
Secretary Gotbaum, a former Wall Street investment banker, achieved the
status of Washington insider in 1 short year. He is respected both by the
Pentagon brass and defense industry officials. He influences key decisions
ranging from BRAC to which defense industries will survive.
Secretary Gotbaum is the right man for the job at the right time. A 44-year-old lawyer, Secretary Gotbaum is at home in the world of mergers,
acquisitions, and restructurings. He heads the new 260-person Pentagon
Office of Economic Security and has won the confidence of many defense
industry and military officials for helping educate the Pentagon brass on
their decisions which impact the nation’s troubled defense industry. And so
far, both sides appear pleased with his efforts or their behalf....
~ ~ ~
For more recent poop on Joshua Gotbaum, GO TO > > > The Eagle Hooded:
The 9-11 Coverup; Hawaiian Airlines: Flying with the Bankruptcy Buzzards;
FOR MORE CONNECTED NESTS, FLY TO > > >
AIG: THE UN-AMERICAN INSURANCE GROUP
THE ALLIED WORLD ASSURANCE COMPANY
ALOHA, HARKEN ENERGY!
A SIMPLE SOLUTION TO CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM
BAE...BUZZARDS ABSENT ETHICS
THE BRIBES AND BOONDOGGLES BOEING
BIRDS IN THE LOBBY
THE CARLYLE GROUP: BIRDS THAT DRINK FROM CESSPOOLS
THE CHUBB GROUP
CONDOLEEZZA & THE CHICKEN HAWKS
CONFESSIONS OF A WHISTLEBLOWER
CROUCHING DRAGONS ~ HIDDEN RATS
DIRTY GOLD IN GOLDMAN SACHS
DIRTY MONEY, DIRTY POLITICS & BISHOP ESTATE
DROWNING IN THINK TANKS
GOING POSTAL AT CONSIGNIA
THE KISSINGER OF DEATH
MARSH & McLENNAN: THE MARSH BIRDS
NEW >>> MARTIAL LAW 911 <<< NEW
NASA AND THE WAR ON TRUTH
NESTS IN THE PENTAGON
OF VAMPIRES AND DAISIES
PARROTS IN THE NEWS ROOM
PIMPS TO POWER
PREDATORS IN PARADISE
THE EAGLE AWAKES
THE EAGLE HOODED
THE NUCLEAR NESTS
THE NESTS OF OSAMA BIN LADEN
THE SILENCE OF THE WHISTLEBLOWERS
THE SINKING OF THE EHIME MARU
THE TORCH OF ERIC SHINE
VULTURES OF THE SANDWICH ISLES
YAKUZA DOODLE DANDIES
YEAR OF THE DRAGON
WHO’S GUARDING THE HEN HOUSE?
PART I - PART II
~ o ~
MORE OF THE CATBIRD’S FAVORITE LINKS
THE CATBIRD SEAT FORUM
THE CATBIRD SEAT
~ o ~
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